The Art Of Make-up
The Art Of Make-up
This article is contributed by Max Factor, whom Hollywood recognizes as the genius of make-up— both for the screen and private life. In collaboration with the motion picture world, he has brought make-rip to its present state of perfection.
IT is my privilege to tell you how and why I have developed my " colour harmony ” system of makeup. My aim was to create cosmetics of life-like naturalness with which every woman in any part of the world could enhance her beauty and charm. I wanted to give to women the happiness and success that comes with a charming appearance. The past thirty years of my life have been devoted to this end. Thousands of women, including stars of the motion picture world, have come to me for advice. I have helped them satisfy their instinctive urge to be beautiful.
Let me take you back about ten years or so. We are on the set of one of the big studios. A large car quietly rolls up to the entrance, a famous star alights and hurries to her dressing-room, where I await her. For hours I have been working on something new, and of infinite importance and value to the science of make-up. To-night I am harmonizing colour pigment in cosmetics for the first time. I am making-up the star and explaining to her the results of my long years of careful investigation and experience. She wonders if the experiment will be a success.
We go out on the set under the dazzling lights. Her director is astonished at her radiant beauty. It seems she realizes my experiment is a success as the camera starts turning. The film is rushed into the projection-room. The scenes flash on the screen, and I realize, as the natural beauty
of the star appears so lovely and so alluring, that the severe test I have imposed has proved the development of “ colour harmony ” in cosmetics.
From this time on, cosmetic “ colour harmony ” was applied to makeup for the woman in everyday life as well as on the screen. My everyday make-up is, of course, slightly different from the one used for the studios, but just as successful. Today, powders, rouges and lipsticks are no longer selected in a haphazard fashion. My purpose—to give women all over the world a naturalness in beauty comparable to that of screen stars—has been fulfilled.
Make-up, to us in Hollywood, is the enhancement of natural beauty through the use of cosmetics, which are in perfect “ colour harmony ’ with the individual complexion. It is applied so skilfully, artistically and delicately, that the final effect is one of exquisite beauty. The cosmetics used to gain this effect are blended into harmony of colour, so that they become a natural part of the skin and its loveliness. Even in the bright Californian sunlight at midday my make-up cannot be detected.
Long years of research and investigation gave me a classification of the human complexion and the features of the face. Finally, I charted seven types, as follows :
Light Blondes, Dark Blondes, Light Redheads, Dark Redheads, “ Brown-ettes,” Light Brunettes, and Dark
Brunettes, which represent the normal types.
The art of make-up is comparable to the art of portrait painting. Both have a common principle of developing and affect the appearance of the face. The portrait artist makes a rough sketch to get the true proportions, so that he may capture the expressions Afterwards, he develops depth. In just the same way, the make-up artist must develop the depth from the proportions of the features, in addition to the correct colourings. He must determine how to apply eye shadow and cheek rouge in proportion to the type of face. On a long face he must counteract length. On a round face, he must develop a more oval effect, for the oval face is the accepted standard of beauty.
Make-up is easy if you learn the correct method, and if you select all your cosmetics in perfect colour harmony ” with your individual complexion. If this is not so, they clash and produce an unnatural, bizarre effect.
When making-up, each feature must be considered individually and as a part of the harmonious whole. The face, the eyes, the lips—each should be beautified in make-up, which should not be used in a haphazard fashion, but applied according to certain well-defined principles of cosmetic art.
For over twenty-five years I have studied make-up facts. I have made-up thousands of faces. I have consulted with hundreds of the leading stars. From this wide practice and experience, a simple make-up method has been devised to suit women all over the world, as well as screen and stage stars.
Under the blazing Californian sun you will find some of the loveliest women in the world. This climate is the severest test of make-up, yet " colour-harmony ” has given a peach-like quality to the complexions of the women whom you will see on the boulevards of Hollywood and the avenues of Beverly Hills.
Every woman can enjoy the feeling of poise and satisfaction, the added confidence and interest that properly applied make-up gives her.
Up to within a few years ago, make-up for the eyes was considered only suitable for the stage Now the smartest women in the world add to the beauty of those ‘ windows 'of the soul.” Your eyes, properly made up. will appear larger and more brilliant. They will increase the magnetism of your personality You have often marvelled at the beautiful eyes of screen stars. Do as they do ! It is simple.
Make-up for the eyes depends on three things: eye shadow applied
to the upper lids, to give the eyes added depth and expression, and to harmonize the small area around the eyes with the rest of your makeup ; mascara, to make the eyelashes heavier and longer and to accentuate the beauty of the eyes ; and eyebrow pencil to give the eyebrows a more pronounced shape, to define slightly the outline of the eyes. All these, applied delicately and artistically, result in added attractiveness.
The purpose of make-up is to accentuate and enhance the tints already in your skin, while the object ol it is to produce naturalness, so that the result will -be as pleasing at a distance as from within a few feet. Foi, if you have applied make-up intelligently and artistically. the colours will be delicate and tender, giving you a clean fresh, wholesome appearance. In other words, aim for a natural beauty.
I have myself made-up hundreds ol " stars,” and I have supervised the making-up of thousands of actresses as well as that of many society women. Every possible method has been used within my knowledge. I have always striven for the greatest enhancement of beauty. The method I give you now has been adopted as the best
First: Cleanse the skin, removing
every particle of make-up each night before retiring. Always have the skin absolutely clean before applying fresh make-up. Soap and water is the simplest method of cleaning, combined with good cleansing cream.
Before making-up for the day,
close the pores and refresh the skin by patting with cold water and then a good astringent.
After this, apply a small amount of foundation cream to the forehead, cheeks, nose and chin. Please understand that the less you use, the better the final effect. Dip your finger-tips into cold water and gently blend the foundation cream into the skin, until it disappears from the surface. Work away from the centre of the face towards the side, using a one-way stroke.
Your face is now ready for the eye shadow. Apply it very faintly on the upper eyelids, just below the eyebrows, and blend it in. Use great care lest it be too noticeable and its effect theatrical.
Pat rouge lightly on the highest spot of your cheek, just below the cheekbone. Blend it gently into the skin with the finger-tips, shading the colour downwards to the full part of the check, keeping the colour away from the nose. Blend it until there is no definite line of colour to be seen. Remember that your object is to shade it so that the warm bloom looks as if it had actually grown on your cheeks.
Apply the face powder profusely with a powder puff, covering all your face. Then take a small, soft face powder-brush and brush off the surplus powder. (Never rub powder on.) In this way you will have an even surface of powder that will last for hours.
Then shape the eyebrows, fill them in, or give them a more pronounced colour and sheen with an eyebrow pencil. Where the eyelashes meet the lid, draw a fine line to define the eyes and accentuate their size.
Now apply mascara to the upper lashes by brushing upwards, then to the lower lashes by brushing downwards. Moisten the brush very slightly to prevent smearing.
Again let me emphasize the extreme importance of applying make-up delicately, for this is the secret of obtaining the natural result that is admired and desirable.
Your lips now require attention.
Use lipstick sparingly. Dry the lips first and apply the lipstick evenly. Keep it well towards the inside of your mouth and avoid a rouge line where the lips meet. Then moisten the lips.
Finally, use a liquid blender on the untouched skin of your neck, so as to finish off in the same shade as your face powder. Smooth it on gently and evenly, using a downward one-way stroke and work it into the skin until dry.
Afterwards, to add lustrous sheen to your hair, sprinkle a little brilliantine as a final touch.
Experience has shown us that under artificial lights your natural day-time make-up is toned down. I recommend, therefore, a more enlivening colour harmony for evening make-up.
As counsel for many screen and stage celebrities and society beauties of Europe and this country, the difficulties of cleansing the skin thoroughly have been presented to me. A cleansing cream of highly refined materials and oils is absolutely essential.
If the skin is inclined to be oily, always use a good astringent before applying make-up. This neutralizes excessive oil sufficiently to give you a base for perfect make-up.
Many skins have a tendency to become too dry at times. This is a handicap in make-up and also leads to premature wrinkles. As a corrective, use a skin and tissue cream. This is readily absorbed. It supplies the oil which the skin lacks and restores a normal, soft, smooth texture. Tissue cream should be applied at night. Never massage the cream into the skin. Just pat it gently and smartly with the finger-tips. If used regularly your skin acquires almost a rose-petal softness.
One last word. I do believe that a healthy skin, blooming with radiant vitality, is the barometer of a healthy body. Correct eating, exercise, and rest are essential to a good complexion and a radiant appearance. These are the surest foundations upon which to enhance beauty by make-up.
The world film encyclopedia, 1933
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